Intersectionality and Buraku discrimination

Buraku discrimination is somatized in people's bodies. That is why discriminatory remarks and acts occur unexpectedly. Burakumin may also discriminate against people with race, ethnicity and disability. Male Burakumin may also demean female Burakumin. However, this does not mean that the self and the other are interchangeable. These issues are discussed as issues of intersectionality from the standpoint of the discriminated, and positionality from the standpoint of the perpetrator of discrimination. The concept of intersectionality is a question of positioning, which speaks of difference in the analysis of social structures that require difference. For example, we believe that it is raised as a question of how to analyze the additive discrimination that one receives for “Burakumin, a woman, and a disabled person.”

Risa Kumamoto criticizes Chizuko Ueno for discussing discrimination against women within the Buraku Liberation Movement, but not against the Buraku within the Women's Liberation Movement. Kumamoto further analyzes that Fukugo-sabetsu circulating in Japan is a translation of "multiple discrimination," which is a different concept from “complex discrimination”. It would be argued that an understanding by the former would divide one human subject into several, and would not be able to handle the Black feminism concept of intersectionality introduced by Kimberly Crenshaw well. The key lies "not in the plurality of discrimination, but in intersectionality," in the analysis of "an amalgam of oppressions that stand intertwined in one person and in this we find the possibility of subject formation in aspiration of liberation. This author believes that Kumamoto's argument is based on extremely acute findings.

In other words, the status of "being a Burakumin, a woman, and a disable person" should not be recognized as separate categories of one person, but rather as an "amalgam," or a single category that is fused together like an alloy. The discussion of positionality, conversely, would be a question of how to self-identify and respond to the accusation of being an oppressive "amalgam" of being male while being a Burakumin. Of course, this idea is also open to question. There is, of course, room for doubt about this idea: the danger that minority categories will be endlessly segmentalized and eventually individualized or mutilated. From the author's discussion, however, the "amalgam" concept is an apt description of the problem of intersectionality without fault.

Kumamoto, from the standpoint of questioning intersectionality as a woman from Buraku, states that "I do not subscribe to the idea that there is an absolutely discriminated individual," but that there is something lacking in the easy statement of this idea. She says that the question is "how oppression has been created, how power has been created," and "how power structures operate in concrete terms."

The relationship between minority and majority is asymmetrical. It is a violent and irreplaceable relationship. Buraku women are placed in an amalgamated category. They are discriminated against by non-Buraku women as well as by non-Buraku men, and within the Buraku, they are subject to violent domination by the Buraku men. The struggles of the women of the Buraku were sometimes ignored out of existence even by the Women's Liberation Movement. In short, this author believes that the complex fusion of victimization and complicity cannot be explained by the "Relational Theory".

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